Difference between revisions of "Template:Reflist"

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{{Documentation subpage}}
 
<includeonly>{{High-risk| 3,600,000+ }}</includeonly>
 
{{notice|<nowiki />
 
* This page gives technical details for the {{tl|reflist}} template. For a full overview of this template in use, see [[Help:Footnotes]].
 
* Columns are not supported by some older browsers, most notably Internet Explorer 9 and below and Opera 11.0 and below. See [[#Browser support for columns|below]] for more information.}}
 
  
This [[Wikipedia:Citation templates|citation template]] provides formatting and organizational features for [[Help:Footnotes|footnotes]].  It encapsulates the {{tag|references|s}} tag used by the {{cite.php}} MediaWiki extension to show the list of references as defined by {{tag|ref|o}} tags. It adds support for a reduced font size, columns, groups and {{ldr}}.
 
 
==Parameters==
 
* First unnamed parameter:
 
*: column-count: a [[natural number]] specifying fixed columns into which the reference list is to be rendered. Example: {{para||2}} – this feature is deprecated as described [[#Columns|below]] and should no longer be used.
 
*: column-width: a typographic unit of measurement such as [[em (typography)#CSS|em]], specifying the width for the reference list columns. Example: {{para||30em}}. (Note: no space i.e. not {{para||30 em}}.)
 
* '''refs''': used with {{ldr}}.
 
* '''group''': identifies by name the subset of references to be rendered; the value should correspond to that used inline, e.g., {{tlx|Reflist|2=group=groupname}} renders all references with groupname as the group name ({{tag|ref|o|params=group=groupname}}). There are five pre-defined group names that style the list differently. See [[#Grouped references|§ Grouped references]] below.
 
* '''liststyle''': specifies the style used when the reference list is rendered. The default is a numbered list. When set, it will override the style set by the {{para|group}} parameter, without affecting group functionality. See [[#List styles|§ List styles]] below.
 
{{anchor|Multiple uses}}
 
 
===Obsolete===
 
These parameters are obsolete and should be removed or replaced when encountered.
 
* '''colwidth''': same as specifying a column-width for the first unnamed parameter.
 
* '''close''': Until 2014 the parameter {{para|close|1}} was used to work around a bug involving multiple uses of {{tl|Reflist}} on the same page.
 
 
==Usage==
 
{{markup|title=Using only footnote-style references
 
|<nowiki>Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
 
 
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
 
 
==References==
 
{{Reflist}}</nowiki>
 
|Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
 
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
 
 
{{fake heading|sub=3|References}}
 
{{Reflist}}
 
}}
 
 
{{markup|title=Using only bibliographical style references (no direct references from the text)
 
|<nowiki>Lorem ipsum. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.
 
 
==References==
 
{{Refbegin}}
 
* reference 1
 
* reference 2
 
{{Refend}}</nowiki>
 
|Lorem ipsum. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.
 
 
{{fake heading|sub=3|References}}
 
{{Refbegin}}
 
* reference 1
 
* reference 2
 
{{Refend}}
 
}}
 
 
{{markup|title=Using both footnote-style and bibliography-style references
 
|<nowiki>Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
 
 
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
 
 
==References==
 
{{Reflist}}
 
 
{{Refbegin}}
 
* reference 1
 
* reference 2
 
{{Refend}}</nowiki>
 
|Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
 
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
 
 
{{fake heading|sub=3|References}}
 
{{Reflist}}
 
 
{{Refbegin}}
 
* reference 1
 
* reference 2
 
{{Refend}}
 
}}
 
 
===Columns===
 
:''Browser support: Internet Explorer 10+, Firefox 2+, Chrome 4+, Safari 3.1+, Opera 11.1+''
 
Using {{tlx|Reflist|30em}} will create columns with a minimum width of 30 [[Em (typography)|em]], allowing the browser to automatically choose the number of columns based on the width of the web browser. Choose a column width that is appropriate for the average width of the references on the page. A width measurement must conform to the format given in [http://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/syndata.html#length-units CSS 2.1 Syntax and basic data types: Lengths]; in particular, there must not be a space between the number and the unit.
 
 
Using {{tlx|Reflist|2}} will force creation of a two-column reference list, and {{tlx|Reflist|3}} will force creation of a three-column list, and so on. This feature is now [[deprecated]] in favor of the option described above, which is better suited to flexible formatting for a variety of display screen sizes, ranging from mobile phones and tablets to wide-screen "cinema" displays. Forcing a fixed number of columns has been disabled in mobile view.
 
 
====Widows and orphans====
 
The use of columns can result in [[widows and orphans]], where a citation at the bottom of a column may be split to the top of the next column. [[MediaWiki:Common.css]] includes CSS rules to prevent list items from breaking between columns. Widows may still show in extreme circumstances, such as a reference list formatted in columns where only a single reference is defined.
 
 
{{markup
 
|<nowiki>Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
 
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.
 
 
==References==
 
{{Reflist|3}}</nowiki>
 
|Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
 
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.
 
 
{{fake heading|sub=3|References}}
 
{{Reflist|3}}
 
}}
 
 
====Practices====
 
The number of columns to use is up to the editor, but some major practices include:
 
* 1 column (default): Where there are only a few {{fnote}}; see {{oldid|Silver State Arena|530211388#References|Silver State Arena (23:05, 28 December 2012)}}
 
* 30em: Where there are many footnotes plus a page-width Bibliography subsection: see {{oldid|Ebola virus disease|561190497#References|Ebola virus disease (06:28, 23 June 2013)}}
 
* 20em: Where {{sfnote}} are used; see {{oldid|NBR 224 and 420 Classes|442508215#Notes|NBR 224 and 420 Classes (13:32, 1 August 2011)}}.
 
 
====Examples====
 
{{markup|title=Two columns
 
|<nowiki>Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
 
 
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
 
 
==References==
 
{{Reflist|2}}</nowiki>
 
|Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
 
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
 
 
{{fake heading|sub=3|References}}
 
{{Reflist|2}}
 
}}
 
 
{{markup|title=30em wide columns
 
|<nowiki>Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
 
 
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
 
 
==References==
 
{{Reflist|30em}}</nowiki>
 
|Lorem ipsum.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
 
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Source name, access date, etc.</ref>
 
 
{{fake heading|sub=3|References}}
 
{{Reflist|30em}}
 
}}
 
 
===List-defined references===
 
{{see|Help:List-defined references}}
 
 
A list of references may be defined within {{tl|Reflist}} using the {{para|refs}} parameter, just like including named {{tag|ref|params=name="..."}} elements inside the {{tag|references}} container. This has been available since September 2009. There are new error messages associated with this feature, documented at [[Help:Cite errors]], including one for references defined in {{tl|Reflist}} but not used within the body.
 
 
====Example====
 
{{markup
 
|<nowiki>This is reference 1.<ref name="refname1" />
 
 
This is reference 2.<ref name="refname2" />
 
 
==References==
 
{{Reflist|refs=
 
<ref name="refname1">content1</ref>
 
<ref name="refname2">content2</ref>
 
}}</nowiki>
 
|This is reference 1.<ref name="refname1" group=decimal/>
 
This is reference 2.<ref name="refname2" group=decimal/>
 
 
{{fake heading|sub=3|References}}
 
{{Reflist|group=decimal|refs=
 
<ref name="refname1">content1</ref>
 
<ref name="refname2">content2</ref>
 
}}
 
}}
 
 
===Grouped references===
 
{{details|WP:REFGROUP}}
 
References can be grouped into separate sections (for explanatory notes, table references, and the like) via <code>group=</code>:
 
:{{tag|ref|open|params=group=<var>groupname</var>}}
 
where <var>groupname</var> is (for example) <code>notes</code> or <code>sources</code>. The group name need not be enclosed in quotes; this differs from the footnote marker where quotes are required if the group name includes a space.
 
 
Each group used in the article must have a matching reference list:
 
:{{tlx|Reflist|2=group=<var>groupname</var>}}
 
 
====Predefined groups====
 
{{details|H:PREGROUP}}
 
There are predefined group names that automatically set the labels in the footnote markers and the reference list to other styles. Thus, setting <code><nowiki>{{Reflist|group=lower-alpha}}</nowiki></code> will set the group to <code>lower-alpha</code> and will style the reference list with lower alpha characters. The matching footnote marker can be formed by {{tag|ref|params=group=lower-alpha}}. This is made easier by a series of templates to set the group/label styles for the footnote marker and the reference list:
 
{{#section:Help:Footnotes|pregrouptable}}
 
 
===List styles===
 
{{for|technical details|Help:Cite link labels}}
 
 
As noted in [[#Predefined groups|§ Predefined groups]], there are predefined groups that automatically add list styling. Using the listed templates is more convenient than using {{para|liststyle}}.
 
 
Reference lists are by default numbered lists. By using the {{para|liststyle}} parameter, you can control how the list is rendered. For example, using {{para|liststyle|upper-roman}} will result in references being labeled with [[Roman numerals]] instead of decimal numbers. The parameter accepts any valid CSS value defined for <code>list-style-type</code> as shown below.
 
{{CSS list-style-type values}}
 
 
It is possible to use {{para|liststyle}} so that the labels for the footnote marker and the reference list marker differ. This should be used with care as it can be confusing to readers. For example:
 
 
{{markup
 
|1=<nowiki><ref group=note>Reference</ref>
 
 
{{Reflist|group=note|liststyle=lower-alpha}}
 
</nowiki>
 
|2=<ref group=note>Reference</ref>
 
 
{{Reflist|group=note|liststyle=lower-alpha}}
 
}}
 
 
===Image flow issues===
 
{{Reflist hide}}
 
When an image is inserted to the left of the reference list, the list may flow under the image, clipping the reference numbers or hiding them behind the image frame, depending upon the browser.
 
 
{{markup
 
|<nowiki>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.</ref><ref>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.</ref>
 
 
==References==
 
[[File:Example.png|left|thumb|100px]]
 
{{Reflist}}
 
</nowiki>
 
|Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.</ref><ref>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.</ref>
 
{{fake heading|sub=3|References}}
 
[[File:Example.png|left|thumb|100px]]
 
{{Reflist}}
 
}}
 
 
To resolve this issue, use the columns feature. If columns are not desired, simply set it to one column using {{tlx|reflist|2=1}}. Note that if the list is longer than the image, it will cause the space below the image to remain empty. It is recommended that a comment be added so that follow-on editors will understand the use.
 
 
{{markup
 
|<nowiki>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.</ref><ref>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.</ref>
 
 
==References==
 
[[File:Example.png|left|thumb|100px]]
 
{{Reflist|1}}<!--Set one column to resolve flow issues with left floated image.-->
 
</nowiki>
 
|Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.<ref>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.</ref><ref>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.</ref>
 
{{fake heading|sub=3|References}}
 
[[File:Example.png|left|thumb|100px]]
 
{{Reflist|1}}<!--Set one column to resolve flow issues with left floated image.-->
 
}}
 
 
==Technical details==
 
===Font size===
 
The font size should reduce to 90% for most browsers, but may appear to show at 100% for Internet Explorer and possibly other browsers.<ref name=fontsize/> As of December 21, 2010, the standard {{tag|references|single}} tag has the same font styling. The smaller font may be disabled through {{myprefs|Gadgets|Disable smaller font sizes of elements such as Infoboxes, Navboxes and References lists}}.
 
 
===Browser support for columns===
 
{{CSS3 multiple column layout}}
 
 
Multiple columns are generated by using [[Cascading Style Sheets|CSS3]], which is still in development; thus only browsers that properly support the multi-column property will show multiple columns with {{tl|Reflist}}.<ref name="stuffandnonsense" /><ref name="w3org1" />
 
 
These browsers '''support''' CSS3 columns:
 
* [[Gecko (layout engine)|Gecko]]-based browsers such as [[Mozilla Firefox]]
 
* [[WebKit]]-based browsers such as [[Safari (web browser)|Safari]] and [[Google Chrome]]
 
* [[Opera (web browser)|Opera]] from version 11.10 onward
 
* [[Internet Explorer]] from version 10 onward
 
 
These browsers do '''not support''' CSS3 columns:
 
* Microsoft [[Trident (layout engine)|Trident]]-based browsers including Internet Explorer through to version 9<ref name="msdn" />
 
* [[Opera (web browser)|Opera]] through to version 11
 
 
===Supporting CSS===
 
{{tl|Reflist}} uses a CSS rule in [[MediaWiki:Common.css]] to set the font size:
 
* <code>div.reflist { font-size: 90%; }</code>
 
 
One of the following classes is assigned by the template when either column count or column width is set:
 
* <code>.references-column-count</code> and <code>.references-column-count-''n''</code> (where <code>''n''</code> is the number of columns)
 
* <code>.references-column-width</code>
 
 
The following CSS properties are utilized using the {{tl|column-count}} and {{tl|column-width}} templates:
 
* <code>column-count</code> CSS3 standard
 
* <code>column-width</code> CSS3 standard
 
* <code>-moz-column-count</code> Mozilla CSS extension
 
* <code>-moz-column-width</code> Mozilla CSS extension
 
* <code>-webkit-column-count</code> Webkit CSS extension
 
* <code>-webkit-column-width</code> Webkit CSS extension
 
 
===Customizing the view===
 
{{see|Help:Reference display customization}}
 
 
By editing your CSS, the personal appearance of the reference list can be customized. From [[Special:Preferences|Preferences]], select the Appearance tab, then on the selected skin select Custom CSS. After editing and saving, follow the instructions at the top of the page to purge. See [[Wikipedia:Skin#Customisation (advanced users)]] for more help.
 
 
'''Font size'''
 
 
The font size for all reference lists defaults to 90% of the standard size. To change it, add:
 
 
<source lang="css">
 
ol.references,
 
div.reflist,
 
div.refbegin {
 
  font-size: 90%;
 
}
 
</source>
 
 
Change 90% to the desired size.
 
 
'''Columns'''
 
 
To disable columns, add:
 
 
<source lang="css">
 
.references-column-count, .references-column-width {
 
  -moz-column-count: 1 !important;
 
  -moz-column-width: auto !important;
 
  -webkit-column-count: 1 !important;
 
  -webkit-column-width: auto !important;
 
  column-count: 1 !important;
 
  column-width: auto !important;
 
}
 
</source>
 
 
Similarly, to force all reference lists to a certain number of columns, change the number to the desired amount.
 
 
'''Column dividers'''
 
 
To add dividers (rules) between columns, add:
 
 
<source lang="css">
 
.references-column-count, .references-column-width {
 
  -moz-column-rule: 1px solid #aaa;
 
  -webkit-column-rule: 1px solid #aaa;
 
  column-rule: 1px solid #aaa;
 
}
 
</source>
 
 
You can alter the appearance of the dividers by changing the values.
 
 
==Perennial suggestions==
 
'''Collapsing and scrolling'''
 
 
There have been a number of requests to add functionality for a collapsible or [[WP:SCROLLING|scrolling]] reference list. These requests have not been fulfilled due to issues with readability, accessibility, and printing. The applicable guidelines are at [[MOS:SCROLL]]. Links between the inline cite and the reference list do not work when the reference list is enclosed in a collapsed box.
 
 
To display the reference list in a scrollbox or collapsed per user, see [[Help:Reference display customization]].
 
 
For discussion on previous attempts to do this with a template, see the discussions for [[Wikipedia:Templates for deletion/Log/2007 June 11#Template:Scrollref|Scrollref]] and [[Wikipedia:Templates for discussion/Log/2010 May 26#Template:Refbox|Refbox]].
 
 
'''Including the section title'''
 
 
There have been suggestions to include section header markup such as <code>==References==</code>. This is inadvisable because:
 
* There is no standard section name {{crossref|(see {{section link|WP:Manual of Style/Layout|Notes and references}})}}.
 
* When transcluded, the article will have an edit link that will confusingly open the template for editing.
 
 
==Template data==
 
{{TemplateDataHeader}}
 
<templatedata>
 
{
 
"description": "This template displays the list of footnotes at the end of an article and provides additional formatting and organizing options. After hitting \"Apply changes\" and turning back to VE read mode, you will not see the references list. After hitting \"Save page\" and turning back to normal read mode the reference list will reappear with the changes applied, see T53146.",
 
"params": {
 
"1": {
 
"label": "Columns / Column width",
 
"type": "string",
 
"required": false,
 
"description": "Two modes supported.  First mode: integer number of fixed columns into which the reference list is to be rendered.  Second mode: typographic unit of measurement such as 'em', specifying the width for the reference list columns, e.g. '33em'; note that '33 em' will not be recognized",
 
"default": "1",
 
"aliases": [
 
"colwidth"
 
]
 
},
 
"liststyle": {
 
"label": "Liststyle",
 
"type": "string",
 
"required": false,
 
"description": "Specifies the style used when the reference list is enumerated; accepts any valid CSS value defined for list-style-type",
 
"default": "decimal"
 
},
 
"group": {
 
"label": "Group",
 
"type": "string",
 
"required": false,
 
"description": "Group is an identifier which restricts the references that are shown. Without this parameter, this template only shows references with no group identifier. With a group identifier specified, only references with a matching group identifier are handled. The rest are left alone."
 
},
 
"refs": {
 
"label": "List of references",
 
"type": "string",
 
"required": false,
 
"description": "Provides a space to define named references for use in the article. References defined in this space are not shown unless used somewhere in the article."
 
}
 
}
 
}
 
</templatedata>
 
 
==See also==
 
* {{phab|T53260}} - Cite: Support multi-column and alternative list-style for {{tag|references|s}} tag (like enwiki {{tl|reflist}})
 
* [[Wikipedia:Citing sources]]&nbsp;– style guide for the citation of sources
 
* [[Wikipedia:Citation templates]]&nbsp;– templates for use with references
 
* {{tl|Refbegin}} and {{tl|Refend}}&nbsp;– format reference lists
 
 
'''Variants'''
 
* {{tl|Template reference list}}&nbsp;– version of reflist for use in templates
 
* {{tl|Reflist-talk}}&nbsp;– for use on talk pages
 
 
==References==
 
{{Reflist|refs=
 
<ref name=fontsize>See [[User:Edokter/fonttest]] for a comparison of font sizes for various browsers; see [http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special%3ASearch&redirs=1&search=fonttest+prefix%3AMediaWiki+talk%3ACommon.css%2F&fulltext=Search&ns0=1 previous discussions] on changing the font size to resolve the IE issue.</ref>
 
<ref name=stuffandnonsense>{{cite web |accessdate=November 24, 2006 |date=December 30, 2005 |title=CSS3 Multi-Column Thriller |url=http://www.stuffandnonsense.co.uk/archives/css3_multi-column_thriller.html}}</ref>
 
 
<ref name=w3org1>{{cite web |url=http://www.w3.org/TR/css3-multicol/ |title=CSS3 module: Multi-column layout |publisher=[[World Wide Web Consortium|W3C]] |date=December 15, 2005 |accessdate=November 24, 2006}}</ref>
 
 
<ref name=msdn>{{cite web |url=http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc351024(VS.85).aspx#multicolumn |title=CSS Compatibility and Internet Explorer: Multi-column Layout |work=Microsoft Developer Network |publisher=Microsoft |accessdate=March 16, 2011}}</ref>
 
}}<includeonly>
 
{{#ifeq:{{SUBPAGENAME}}|sandbox| |
 
[[Category:Footnote templates]]
 
[[Category:Reference list templates]]
 
 
}}</includeonly>
 

Latest revision as of 11:30, 18 March 2016