Grabbing debug messages
By default debug messages from ReactOS are sent to the serial port (COM1). For grabbing that output, you need at least qemu version 0.6.1 where you can specify the -serial option.
$ qemu -serial stdio -cdrom roslive.iso -boot d
If you are testing the setup cd, note that you can change the kernel arguments by editing the txtsetup.sif file (so things actually get written to the serial port).
ReactOS preloaded with QEMU
A preloaded QEMU image of ReactOS can be found here.