Difference between revisions of "Installing ReactOS"

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[[Установка ReactOS|Russian]]
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{{Warning|Please bear in mind that ReactOS is still in '''alpha stage''', meaning it is not stable or feature-complete and is not recommended for everyday use. Operating system bugs can and do result in corrupted file systems, overwritten partitions, and more. Do not install ReactOS on any computer containing important data without '''using a virtual machine''' or '''making full backups first'''.}}
  
== ReactOS Hardware Requirements ==
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= Before installing =
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There are several things to be made aware of before installing ReactOS, or even obtaining the installation media. These include how ReactOS will be installed, limitations of the installation, and backing up existing data.
  
Whether installing [[ReactOS]] on real hardware or on an emulator, it is important to know the minimum requirements to install and use ReactOS:
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== Limitations ==
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ReactOS is '''[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_release_life_cycle#Alpha alpha]''' level (or alpha phase) software. It is not yet [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feature_complete feature complete]. <br>
 +
Some major bugs remain to be corrected.  For the details see [[Known Issues]].
 +
Bear in mind that this is not a complete list of known issues. See also [[Missing ReactOS Functionality]].<br>
  
* 32MB [[RAM]] (NOTE: Debug builds may require 72MB of RAM, please use a release build on low memory systems)
 
* [[IDE]] [[harddisk]]
 
* [[FAT16]]/[[FAT32]] boot partition
 
* VGA compatible video card
 
* Standard ([[PS/2]]) [[keyboard]]
 
* PS/2 compatible [[mouse]] or Microsoft Mouse compatible serial mouse
 
  
Furthermore, if you want to try [[TCP/IP]] networking, one of the following [[ethernet card]]s may work:
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The ReactOS itself, setup utility, and [[FreeLoader|boot loader]] have a number of limitations. The most prominent are:
  
* NE2000 clones
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* ReactOS is '''not''' able to boot from '''USB''' devices yet. Except [[#USB-RAM boot|RAM Boot]] method.
* cards based on the Realtek8139 chipset
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* the setup utility does not prevent users from performing dangerous and potentially destructive operations.
 +
* UEFI system firmware is not supported by ReactOS yet, you have to use legacy BIOS mode.
 +
* some SATA controllers may not work with ReactOS.
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* the boot partition is highly recommended to be the first partition on the first (or even better - single) disk in the system.
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* the setup utility can check the integrity of ONLY FAT16 and FAT32 file systems.
 +
* HD Audio or use of multiple audio cards at the same time are not yet supported. ReactOS versions and builds prior to 0.4.12 will not boot after setup.
  
Other cards might also work, if you provide the appropriate driver.
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= System requirements =
  
== Choosing an installation strategy ==
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== Hardware support ==
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ReactOS has '''limited''' hardware support. Lists of particular hardware that have been tested can be found on the page '''[[Supported Hardware]]'''.
  
Before installing ReactOS&mdash;or indeed, before obtaining ReactOS installation media&mdash;it is necessary to decide how ReactOS should be installed on your computer system.  Although ReactOS support for IDE disk drives and the FAT16 and FAT32 filesystems is stable as of the [[0.2.x/0.2.5|0.2.5]] release, ReactOS is still undergoing rapid and fundamental development, with no guarantee that damage will not occur to any hardware or software on which it is run.
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== Minimum hardware requirements ==
 +
The minimum requirements to install ReactOS are:
  
Accordingly, the first consideration to make is whether to install ReactOS on a dedicated testing or development machine, or in a contained environment such as running on an emulator without direct disk access. Such options are preferable if the machine on which you will run ReactOS is your primary computer, and/or if you have important data on the computer which you cannot afford to lose (as may well occur if ReactOS experiences a catastrophic error, for example).
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* '''RAM:''' at least 64&nbsp;MB, recommended 256&nbsp;MB, and even 2048&nbsp;MB if you want to test  large software suites or bundles.
 +
* '''Processor:''' x86 or x64 architecture, Pentium or later and compatibles; for more information see [[ReactOS ports]].
 +
* '''HDD:''' IDE/SATA with minimum 450&nbsp;MB of free space on the primary partition (please note that some SATA controllers may not work with ReactOS):
 +
** FAT16/FAT32 primary boot partition.
 +
* '''Video:''' VGA compatible video card (VESA BIOS version 2.0 or later).
  
If you decide nonetheless to install ReactOS on a disk drive that contains an existing operating system (such as Microsoft Windows XP), you should ensure that the drive is formatted with a filesystem ReactOS can access and write to (which are limited to FAT16 or FAT32, as of the [[0.3.x/0.3.0|0.3.0]] release), and that there is sufficient free space on the drive such that ReactOS can be installed.
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= Getting ReactOS =
 +
Due to the current state of the project, the ReactOS Foundation does not offer official installation media for distribution. Installation CD-ROMs must be created by the user by writing an available image file to a CD-ROM.
  
Furthermore, the current hardware limitations to which ReactOS is constrained must be identified and compared to the target computer system (''e.g.'', the limitation that only IDE disk drives may be accessed, and that ReactOS has ''extremely'' limited [[USB_Stack|USB]] support as of the 0.3.0 release).
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== Downloading the image file ==
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Official ISO image files can be downloaded at one of the following locations:
 +
* The official [http://www.reactos.org/download Download] page.
 +
* ReactOS [http://www.reactos.org/getbuilds trunk builds]
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* ReactOS at [http://sourceforge.net/projects/reactos/files/ReactOS SourceForge] (ReactOS-{{ReactOS-Curr-Version}}-REL-iso.zip)
  
Once the available hardware and software situation is determined, the installation media can be selected&mdash;for example, if your computer includes an ATA CD-ROM and an IDE hard disk that does not contain irreplaceable data, a good installation option may be to write an ISO image of the ReactOS installation media to a CD-RW and proceed to install ReactOS on the IDE hard disk via the CD-ROM.
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WARNING: Some anti-malware programs will detect false positives in ReactOS files.
  
== Getting ReactOS ==
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== Creating the Installation CD ==
 
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The downloaded file is a compressed archive in ZIP format, containing a single file named "ReactOS.iso". The ISO image contains everything needed to create the CD.
Currently, ReactOS setup CD-ROMs cannot be bought in stores nor ordered. If you want to install ReactOS on a computer, you will have to create a ReactOS setup CD-ROM by yourself, downloading an image file and writing it to CD-R or CD-RW media with a CD writer. Downloading the image of the ReactOS Setup CD-ROM
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* Extract the image file from the archive into a temporary directory.
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* Burn the ISO image to a CD-R or CD-RW using any software of your choice.
  
=== Where to download from ===
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When burning the ISO to disc, be sure it is written as an image file. Writing to the disc as another type of data will not work and render the Installation CD unbootable. Look for an option similar to "Burn from ISO" or "Write disk image".
  
Images of the ReactOS setup CD-ROM are physically stored on the ReactOS project page on SourceForge. You can download images directly from the SourceForge site, but some users may prefer the ReactOS.org portal. Both have the exact same downloads though, so there's no real advantage to choosing one over the other.
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= Installing ReactOS =
 +
Please consider '''making full backups''' of any sensitive data before you start any experiments with ReactOS in the production environment!
  
==== ReactOS site ====
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== Installation strategy ==
 +
The first consideration to make is whether to install ReactOS on a dedicated testing machine or in a contained environment, such as running on an emulator without direct disk access. The use of an emulator is preferable if the machine on which you will run ReactOS is your primary computer or if you have important data on the computer which you cannot afford to lose.
  
* Visit ReactOS.org, the ReactOS portal site. This site will always point to the latest release.
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If you decide to install ReactOS on a disk drive that contains an existing operating system (such as Microsoft Windows XP), you should ensure that the drive is formatted with a file system ReactOS can access and write to (now, primary FAT32/FAT16 partition) and that there is sufficient free space on the drive such that ReactOS can be installed (now, >=450&nbsp;MB).
* Click on the "Download" link. A page opens with links to packages of the latest release of ReactOS.
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Furthermore, the current hardware limitations to which ReactOS is constrained must be identified and compared to the target computer system (e.g. that ReactOS has only basic audio support as of [[0.4.12]] release).
* Click on the "ISO Image" link. You will be redirected to one of the SourceForge download servers, and the download will shortly begin.
 
  
OR!
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Once the available hardware and software situation is determined the installation media can be selected. In most cases, USB-RAM boot should be enough (or CD-ROM boot for virtual machines). But sometimes it may either not work or be not available for the particular system. Then you can use other available options as well.
  
* Visit the [http://wiki.reactos.org/ ReactOS Wiki].
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ReactOS goes through three stages during setup. The first two stages deal with the installation of the system, while the third stage is the first usable boot by the user.
* Click on the [[Download ReactOS]] link. This will always contain the latest offical release.
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* First stage – Text mode setup, started when booting from a ReactOS CD-ROM.
* Select the "ISO image" link.
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* Second stage – Booting to GUI installer. The input of user information and registering of files.
 +
* Third stage – Booting to desktop, user configurations.
  
==== SourceForge ====
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If you '''encounter problems''', it is recommended to disable all secondary or unnecessary devices, especially '''USB'''-cameras and '''sound cards''' of any type.
  
* Visit the ReactOS project page on SourceForge.
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== Virtual Machines ==
* Scroll down to "Latest File Releases".
+
A Virtual Machine is a software program that provides a virtual hardware platform. Software instructions that would be run on hardware are now interpreted by the emulator software. This allows you to "run" a different kind of computer hardware and its software in a window on your computer.
* Click on the "Download" link for the "reactos" package. A page opens with links to packages of the latest release of ReactOS. The files of the "reactos" package should appear highlighted in a different color.
 
* Click on the "reactos-version-iso.zip" link, where version is the version number. You will be redirected to one of the SourceForge download servers, and the download will shortly begin.
 
  
== Creating the ReactOS Setup CD-ROM ==
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See article [[Virtualization software]] for the details.
  
* The file you downloaded is a compressed archive in ZIP format, containing a single file named "reactos.iso". This file is the image file of the ReactOS setup CD-ROM in ISO format.
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== Real hardware ==
* Extract the image file from the archive into a temporary directory.
 
* Write the image file onto CD-R or CD-RW media. Refer [[HOWTO/burn_ReactOS_ISO | HOWTO Burn ISO image]] for more info.
 
  
== Installing ReactOS on a real machine==
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'''Note''' For the real hardware experiments, we recommend you to use our "official" [https://amzn.to/2okGUuH Dell Latitude D531] laptop or similar [[PC ROS Rigs| notebook models]] in order to achieve the best possible experience.
  
=== From a Setup CD-ROM ===
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=== Ordinary CD-ROM method ===
  
* Make sure your BIOS is configured to boot from the CD-ROM first
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* Make sure your BIOS is configured to boot from the CD-ROM first.
 +
* If your PC has UEFI system firmware, then you have to enable legacy BIOS mode.
 
* Insert the ReactOS setup CD-ROM into a CD-ROM drive and reboot your computer. On the next boot, the ReactOS setup utility will start.
 
* Insert the ReactOS setup CD-ROM into a CD-ROM drive and reboot your computer. On the next boot, the ReactOS setup utility will start.
 
* Follow the instructions on the screen to install ReactOS on your computer.
 
* Follow the instructions on the screen to install ReactOS on your computer.
* After the installation has finished, remove the setup CD-ROM from the CD-ROM drive and press "Return" to reboot your computer. Now, you can start ReactOS by selecting it from the boot menu.
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* After the installation has finished, remove the setup CD-ROM from the CD-ROM drive and press ''Enter'' to reboot your computer. You can now start ReactOS by selecting it from the boot menu.
* And that's all.
 
  
=== Technical Notes ===
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=== USB Installation ===
  
Modifications performed to the Hard Disk to boot ReactOS
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Due to problems with the PnP manager, it is '''NOT''' currently possible to boot or install ReactOS from a '''USB''' stick made directly from *.iso file. You will get BSOD with <code>0x0000007B</code> code. This worked previously but was broken several years ago by a rewrite of the USB code and major changes in the kernel. For USB boot you have to use [[#USB-RAM boot|RAM Boot]] method instead.
  
==== FreeLoader ====
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You can try applying a patch from [https://github.com/reactos/reactos/pull/1569 PR #1569] and building from source, or try these unofficial experimental builds '''http://vgal.ru.com/reactos-0-4-10-new-usb/''' (not recommended, they are very outdated).
[[FreeLoader]], the ReactOS boot loader, is composed of two files: an executable (FREELDR.SYS) and a configuration file in Windows INI format (FREELDR.INI). The two files are copied to the root directory of the active partition.
 
  
The FreeLoader boot code, that is the small program that loads FREELDR.SYS, can be installed in many ways, depending on the pre-existing operating system. The setup logic tries the following steps in order:
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=== USB-RAM boot ===
 +
For this method, you should prepare a flash drive first. It should have a FAT32 filesystem and the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiboot_specification Multiboot specification]-capable bootloader should be installed on it.
 +
For example, you can use [https://wiki.syslinux.org/wiki/index.php?title=Install syslinux]. Here is how to install it (for syslinux version 6.x):
  
* If the Windows NT/2000/XP boot manager is found on the active partition, the existing boot manager is configured to boot ReactOS. The FreeLoader boot code is written to a file named BOOTSECT.ROS in the root of the active partition, and an entry named "ReactOS" is added to BOOT.INI pointing to BOOTSECT.ROS.
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==== On Linux ====
** The Windows NT/2000/XP boot manager is detected by the presence of the files NTLDR and BOOT.INI in the root directory of the active partition.
 
** To uninstall FreeLoader, delete the file BOOTSECT.ROS and remove the "ReactOS" entry from the hidden BOOT.INI file.
 
* If MS-DOS or Windows 95/98/ME is found on the active partition, the original boot sector is saved to a file named BOOTSECT.DOS in the root directory of the active partition. The FreeLoader boot code is then written to the boot sector of the active partition. FreeLoader thus becomes your primary boot manager, and from its boot menu you will be able to boot both ReactOS and your pre-existing operating system
 
** MS-DOS and Windows 95/98/ME are detected by the presence of the files MSDOS.SYS and IO.SYS in the root directory of the active partition.
 
** To uninstall FreeLoader, boot from a MS-DOS or Windows Restore floppy disk, and run the command "SYS C:". After this, the BOOTSECT.DOS file can be safely deleted.
 
* If none of the known operating systems are found on the active partition, the original boot sector is saved to the file BOOTSECT.OLD in the root directory of the active partition. The FreeLoader boot code is then written to the boot sector of the active partition. FreeLoader thus becomes the primary boot manager. Note that you will have to edit the FREELDR.INI configuration file by yourself to boot the pre-existing operating system, because FreeLoader has no knowledge of how to do it.
 
** To uninstall FreeLoader, restore the boot sector of the active partition from the BOOTSECT.OLD file. The details on how to do so are dependent on the operating system you are running.
 
  
Note: If the active partition uses a FAT32 filesystem, the boot code does not fit into a single sector. Microsoft uses sectors number 0 and 12, while FreeLoader uses sectors number 0 and 14, so there should not be any conflicts with existing boot loaders.
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Plug in the flash drive and leave it unmounted.
 +
Then run these commands:
 +
<pre>
 +
sudo mkfs.vfat /dev/sdb1
 +
sudo syslinux --install /dev/sdb1
 +
</pre>
 +
Note: here, <code>/dev/sdb1</code> is a partition on a flash drive
  
Note: The support for other operating systems will be improved in the future.
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==== On Windows ====
  
== Installing ReactOS on an emulator ==
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Use [https://rufus.ie/ Rufus] tool:
  
=== Emulators ===
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* Select your flash drive
An emulator is a software program that provides a virtual hardware platform. Software instructions that would be run on hardware are now interpreted by the emulator software. This allows you to "run" a different kind of computer hardware and its software in a window on your computer. Although the performance of the software run on a virtual computer will be much slower than on real hardware, it provides several advantages:
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* Click "Show advanced drive properties"
 +
* Boot selection: <code>Syslinux 6.x</code>
 +
* Partition scheme: <code>MBR</code>, File system: <code>FAT32</code>
 +
* Format the drive using selected options above
  
*You can try out a completely different operating system without tinkering with your real system.
+
==== Next common steps for both platforms ====
*You can run potentially unstable software without the fear of damaging your real system.
 
*For operating system developers, it provides a way to debug the system without constant reboots.
 
  
=== Bochs ===
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At this point, you should have a bootloader installed onto the drive. '''Now it's time to copy some files onto it'''.
[[Bochs]] (pronounced "box") is an emulator of x86- or x64-architecture computer systems. It can run on the DOS/Windows and Linux operating systems, ''inter alia'', and emulates an IBM PC computer system including a 386, 486 or Pentium CPU. Bochs also provides IO port and BIOS emulation, as well as various other system-level hardware components (such as video display hardware, disk controllers and ethernet cards) such that the emulated system can run diverse operating systems such as Linux, DOS, Windows 95, Windows NT 4, and ReactOS, among others.  
 
  
The software was initially written by Kevin Lawton and is now maintained by the Bochs SourceForge project.
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([https://svn.reactos.org/packages/usbramboot.zip Download] all the required files, except iso images, in a zip-archive. It uses freeldr.sys from the [https://git.reactos.org/?p=reactos.git;a=commit;h=fb4591c48c568d138d9d7aeaa90db4bd5885c6aa fb4591c] commit)
  
== Installing ReactOS on virtualizing systems ==
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* Now you need to copy <code>mboot.c32</code> and <code>libcom32.c32</code> syslinux libraries to the root
 +
* Then copy a freeldr.sys bootloader from ReactOS [[0.4.13]] or higher
 +
* Now you need to write some configuration files. First, <code>syslinux.cfg</code>:
  
=== Virtual computing ===
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<pre>
 +
DEFAULT ReactOS
 +
LABEL ReactOS
 +
  KERNEL mboot.c32
 +
  APPEND /freeldr.sys
 +
</pre>
 +
* Then <code>freeldr.ini</code>:
 +
<pre>
 +
[FREELOADER]
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DefaultOS=BootCD_Debug
 +
TimeOut=5
  
A virtual machine is a software program that is similar to an emulator in that it provides a virtual hardware platform. Software instructions that would be run on hardware are caught by the virtual environment, and depending on the instruction, are either run on the native CPU or emulated in software. Virtual computing allows for much faster operation than standard emulation, as a result of the ability to run a majority of instructions on the native CPU. The performance of the software on a virtual computer will be only slightly slower than on real hardware. Overhead is still an issue for disk I/O and CPU instruction execution, but is generally faster than total emulation.
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[Display]
 +
TitleText=ReactOS LiveUSB
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StatusBarColor=Cyan
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StatusBarTextColor=Black
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BackdropTextColor=White
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BackdropColor=Blue
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BackdropFillStyle=Medium
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TitleBoxTextColor=White
 +
TitleBoxColor=Red
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MessageBoxTextColor=White
 +
MessageBoxColor=Blue
 +
MenuTextColor=Gray
 +
MenuColor=Black
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TextColor=Gray
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SelectedTextColor=Black
 +
SelectedColor=Gray
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ShowTime=No
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MenuBox=No
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CenterMenu=No
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MinimalUI=Yes
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TimeText=Seconds until highlighted choice will be started automatically:
  
Advantages of virtual computing:
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[Operating Systems]
 +
LiveCD="LiveCD"
 +
LiveCD_Debug="LiveCD (Debug)"
 +
LiveCD_Screen="LiveCD (Screen)"
 +
BootCD="BootCD"
 +
BootCD_Debug="BootCD (Debug)"
 +
BootCD_Screen="BootCD (Screen)"
  
* You can try out a completely different operating system without tinkering with your real system.
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[LiveCD]
* You can run potentially unstable software without the fear of damaging your real system.
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BootType=Windows2003
* For operating systems developers, it provides a way to debug the system without constant reboots.
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SystemPath=ramdisk(0)\reactos
* The performace is much faster then a true emulator such as Bochs.
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Options=/MININT /RDPATH=livecd.iso /RDEXPORTASCD
  
 +
[LiveCD_Debug]
 +
BootType=Windows2003
 +
SystemPath=ramdisk(0)\reactos
 +
Options=/DEBUG /DEBUGPORT=COM1 /BAUDRATE=115200 /SOS /MININT /RDPATH=livecd.iso /RDEXPORTASCD
  
The following virtualizing software systems are known to run Reactos:
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[LiveCD_Screen]
 +
BootType=Windows2003
 +
SystemPath=ramdisk(0)\reactos
 +
Options=/DEBUG /DEBUGPORT=SCREEN /SOS /MININT /RDPATH=livecd.iso /RDEXPORTASCD
  
=== VMware Workstation ===
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[BootCD]
 
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BootType=ReactOSSetup
[http://www.vmware.com/ VMware] is a popular commercial virtual machine software system for the x86 CPU family. It can run on Windows NT, 2K, XP and Linux/FreeBSD. It also provides IO port, BIOS emulation, networking and sound support. VMware can run a number of different "guest" operating systems including *DOS, Windows 9x/NT/2K/XP, ReactOS, Free Unices (*BSD, Linux) as well as many others. VMware is free for 30 days, after that you must purchase a license from their website.
+
SystemPath=ramdisk(0)\
 
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Options=/MININT /RDPATH=bootcd.iso /RDEXPORTASCD
Note: If ReactOS seems to hang during the early stages of boot (before loading the kernel), try to "power off" unneeded hardware, eg: floppy, cdrom, sound etc...
 
 
 
=== VMWare Player ===
 
 
 
The [http://www.vmware.com/ VMware] Player is a free version of the popular [http://www.vmware.com/ VMware] for a number of different "guest" operating systems including *DOS, Windows 9x/NT/2K/XP, ReactOS, Free Unices (*BSD, Linux) as well as many others. VMware player is free but does not come with the features VMware Workstation comes bundled with.
 
 
 
Note: If ReactOS seems to hang during the early stages of boot (before loading the kernel), try to "power off" unneeded hardware, eg: floppy, cdrom, sound etc...
 
 
 
=== QEMU ===
 
 
 
[http://fabrice.bellard.free.fr/qemu/ QEMU] is an [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_source open source] emulator of the x86 and x64 architectures, that can also function as a partial virtualizer using a kernel module running on Linux.  ReactOS is claimed to run on version 0.5.5 of QEMU.
 
 
 
== Limitations ==
 
=== Hardware Support ===
 
  
Currently, ReactOS has limited hardware support. A list of the most important limitations follows:
+
[BootCD_Debug]
 +
BootType=ReactOSSetup
 +
SystemPath=ramdisk(0)\
 +
Options=/DEBUG /DEBUGPORT=COM1 /BAUDRATE=115200 /SOS /MININT /RDPATH=bootcd.iso /RDEXPORTASCD
  
* ReactOS needs at least 32 MBs of RAM to boot, it can be run on 24MB although that's not recommended.
+
[BootCD_Screen]
* ReactOS can only be booted from IDE CD-ROMs and hard disks.
+
BootType=ReactOSSetup
 +
SystemPath=ramdisk(0)\
 +
Options=/DEBUG /DEBUGPORT=SCREEN /SOS /MININT /RDPATH=bootcd.iso /RDEXPORTASCD
 +
</pre>
 +
'''Note:''' for detailed explanation, see [[Boot options]]
 +
* Now place <code>bootcd.iso</code> and/or <code>livecd.iso</code> in the root of the disk (or whatever path configured in <code>freeldr.ini</code>)
 +
* Ready to boot
  
Note that booting from CD-ROM is supported only for running the setup program unless you're using the LiveCD option, which is meant to be booted of the CD-ROM continuously. Otherwise booting from CD-ROM for normal use is not recommended. Although it is generally possible, the default configuration will prevent ReactOS from creating a swap file when booted from a CD-ROM. If no swap file is available, ReactOS will stop as soon as it runs out of RAM. In practice, this prevents the use of any non-trivial program.
+
=== Using virtual machine ===
 +
* Create a virtual machine but without the hard disk
 +
* Create a virtual hard disk for VirtualBox which points to the real one
 +
** on Linux: <code>VBoxManage internalcommands createrawvmdk -filename "~/VirtualBox VMs/reactos/disk.vmdk" -rawdisk PathToHarddisk</code>
 +
** important: <code>PathToHarddisk</code> must be the whole disk, not a partition: /dev/sdb
 +
* Add <code>disk.vmdk</code> to virtual machine via Storage => Add Harddisk
 +
* Install ReactOS as usual
  
=== Setup and Boot ===
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=== Network boot or installation via PXE ===
  
Currently, the ReactOS setup utility and boot loader have a number of limitations you should be aware of:
+
See article [[Building PXE-ready ReactOS]].
  
* ReactOS can only be installed on FAT16 or FAT32 partitions.
+
===Installing from internal drive===
* The active partition must be a FAT16 or FAT32 partition.
+
See article [[User:Minecraftchest1/installing/installing-from-harddrive]]
* The setup utility can't check the integrity of filesystems.
 
* The setup utility will not prevent users from performing dangerous and potentially destructive operations. Be very careful when using it and do not take any warnings lightly.
 
  
== ReactOS boot options ==
+
= Installing drivers =
 +
You may be also interested to know how to install a driver for a device in ReactOS. If so, see [[Install a driver]] article.
  
===Kernel command line===
+
= Unattended Installation =
The [[kernel]] command line is a text string that is passed to ReactOS by the boot loader (usually [[FreeLoader]]). It consists of several switches, each of which has a special meaning to ReactOS. A switch is a forward slash (<code>/</code>) followed by a text string (the name of the switch), and optionally an equal sign (<code>=</code>) and a text string (the value). If the equal sign is present, then at least one value is required to follow.
+
You may be also interested to know how to install ReactOS in the automatic (non-interactive) mode. If so, see [[Create an unattended Installation CD]] article.
  
The syntax, variables and device strings used by FreeLoader conform to the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_RISC_Computing ARC] firmware and boot specification, similarly to the boot system used in all Windows NT implementations (such as the Windows NT bootloader on the x86 architecture, or the ARC console used to boot Windows NT 4.0 on the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jazz_(computer) MIPS], Alpha AXP and PowerPC architectures).  Because of this, boot disks and other firmware- or BIOS-accessible devices are specified by each of the bus, disk, slice, and partition values associated with the device.
+
= See also =
 +
* [http://www.virtualbox.org/ VirtualBox] – a free virtualization software for Windows, Linux and Mac ([[VirtualBox|HOWTO]])
 +
* [http://wiki.qemu.org/Main_Page QEMU] – an open source machine emulator
  
In FreeLoader the kernel command line is specified in an <code>Options</code> setting in <code>freeldr.ini</code>. The following text is an example of the contents of <code>freeldr.ini</code>, which boots ReactOS from the first partition of the first IDE drive of the computer system:
+
* [[Boot options]] for FreeLoader
<code>
+
* [[Boot FreeLoader from GRUB]] – How to boot ReactOS from GRUB
[ReactOS]
+
* [[Install a driver]] in ReactOS
BootType=ReactOS
 
SystemPath=multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\reactos
 
Options=/DEBUGPORT=SCREEN
 
</code>
 
As used in the above sample file, <code>DEBUGPORT</code> is a boot option. By adding the boot option <code>/DEBUGREPORT=SCREEN</code>, ReactOS will print debugging information to the screen.
 
  
===Boot options===
+
[[Category:Tutorial]]
The following boot options may be used:
 
<br>
 
; <code>DEBUGPORT</code> : Specifying <code>DEBUGPORT</code> as a boot option will enable certain debugging features.
 
* Format: <code>DEBUGPORT=[SCREEN|BOCHS|GDB|PICE|COM1|COM2|COM3|COM4|FILE|MDA]</code><br>Any one of the following values may set:
 
** <code>SCREEN</code>: Send debug output to the screen.
 
** <code>BOCHS</code>: Send debug output to bochs.
 
** <code>GDB</code>: Enable the GNU debugger (GDB) stub so remote debugging using GDB is possible.
 
** <code>PICE</code>: Enable the Private ICE driver so debugging using Private ICE is possible.
 
** <code>COM1</code>: Send debug output to COM1.
 
** <code>COM2</code>: Send debug output to COM2.
 
** <code>COM3</code>: Send debug output to COM3.
 
** <code>COM4</code>: Send debug output to COM4.
 
** <code>FILE</code>: Send debug output to a file %systemroot%/reactos/debug.log
 
** <code>MDA</code>: Send debug output to MDA ''(The old text-graphiccard from IBM)''.
 
<br>
 
; <code>BAUDRATE</code> : Specifies baudrate of the serial port to be <code>[baudrate]</code> bps. Used in conjunction with <code>COM1-4</code> or <code>GDB</code>.
 
* Format: <code>BAUDRATE=[baudrate]</code>
 
<br>
 
; <code>IRQ</code> : Specifies the IRQ number of the serial port to be <code>[irq-number]</code>. Used in conjunction with <code>COM1-4</code> or <code>GDB</code>.
 
* Format: <code>IRQ=[irq-number]</code>
 
<br>
 
; <code>PROFILE</code> : Enables profiling. Profiling information will be written in <code>%windir%\profiler.log</code>. This will slow down the system quite a bit.
 
* Format: <code>PROFILE</code>
 
<br>
 
; <code>MAXMEM</code> : Will restrict ReactOS to use only the first <code>[maxmem]</code> MB of physical memory.
 
* Format: <code>MAXMEM=[maxmem]</code>
 

Latest revision as of 13:12, 30 May 2020

Icon speedy deletion.png Warning: Please bear in mind that ReactOS is still in alpha stage, meaning it is not stable or feature-complete and is not recommended for everyday use. Operating system bugs can and do result in corrupted file systems, overwritten partitions, and more. Do not install ReactOS on any computer containing important data without using a virtual machine or making full backups first.


Before installing

There are several things to be made aware of before installing ReactOS, or even obtaining the installation media. These include how ReactOS will be installed, limitations of the installation, and backing up existing data.

Limitations

ReactOS is alpha level (or alpha phase) software. It is not yet feature complete.
Some major bugs remain to be corrected. For the details see Known Issues. Bear in mind that this is not a complete list of known issues. See also Missing ReactOS Functionality.


The ReactOS itself, setup utility, and boot loader have a number of limitations. The most prominent are:

  • ReactOS is not able to boot from USB devices yet. Except RAM Boot method.
  • the setup utility does not prevent users from performing dangerous and potentially destructive operations.
  • UEFI system firmware is not supported by ReactOS yet, you have to use legacy BIOS mode.
  • some SATA controllers may not work with ReactOS.
  • the boot partition is highly recommended to be the first partition on the first (or even better - single) disk in the system.
  • the setup utility can check the integrity of ONLY FAT16 and FAT32 file systems.
  • HD Audio or use of multiple audio cards at the same time are not yet supported. ReactOS versions and builds prior to 0.4.12 will not boot after setup.

System requirements

Hardware support

ReactOS has limited hardware support. Lists of particular hardware that have been tested can be found on the page Supported Hardware.

Minimum hardware requirements

The minimum requirements to install ReactOS are:

  • RAM: at least 64 MB, recommended 256 MB, and even 2048 MB if you want to test large software suites or bundles.
  • Processor: x86 or x64 architecture, Pentium or later and compatibles; for more information see ReactOS ports.
  • HDD: IDE/SATA with minimum 450 MB of free space on the primary partition (please note that some SATA controllers may not work with ReactOS):
    • FAT16/FAT32 primary boot partition.
  • Video: VGA compatible video card (VESA BIOS version 2.0 or later).

Getting ReactOS

Due to the current state of the project, the ReactOS Foundation does not offer official installation media for distribution. Installation CD-ROMs must be created by the user by writing an available image file to a CD-ROM.

Downloading the image file

Official ISO image files can be downloaded at one of the following locations:

WARNING: Some anti-malware programs will detect false positives in ReactOS files.

Creating the Installation CD

The downloaded file is a compressed archive in ZIP format, containing a single file named "ReactOS.iso". The ISO image contains everything needed to create the CD.

  • Extract the image file from the archive into a temporary directory.
  • Burn the ISO image to a CD-R or CD-RW using any software of your choice.

When burning the ISO to disc, be sure it is written as an image file. Writing to the disc as another type of data will not work and render the Installation CD unbootable. Look for an option similar to "Burn from ISO" or "Write disk image".

Installing ReactOS

Please consider making full backups of any sensitive data before you start any experiments with ReactOS in the production environment!

Installation strategy

The first consideration to make is whether to install ReactOS on a dedicated testing machine or in a contained environment, such as running on an emulator without direct disk access. The use of an emulator is preferable if the machine on which you will run ReactOS is your primary computer or if you have important data on the computer which you cannot afford to lose.

If you decide to install ReactOS on a disk drive that contains an existing operating system (such as Microsoft Windows XP), you should ensure that the drive is formatted with a file system ReactOS can access and write to (now, primary FAT32/FAT16 partition) and that there is sufficient free space on the drive such that ReactOS can be installed (now, >=450 MB). Furthermore, the current hardware limitations to which ReactOS is constrained must be identified and compared to the target computer system (e.g. that ReactOS has only basic audio support as of 0.4.12 release).

Once the available hardware and software situation is determined the installation media can be selected. In most cases, USB-RAM boot should be enough (or CD-ROM boot for virtual machines). But sometimes it may either not work or be not available for the particular system. Then you can use other available options as well.

ReactOS goes through three stages during setup. The first two stages deal with the installation of the system, while the third stage is the first usable boot by the user.

  • First stage – Text mode setup, started when booting from a ReactOS CD-ROM.
  • Second stage – Booting to GUI installer. The input of user information and registering of files.
  • Third stage – Booting to desktop, user configurations.

If you encounter problems, it is recommended to disable all secondary or unnecessary devices, especially USB-cameras and sound cards of any type.

Virtual Machines

A Virtual Machine is a software program that provides a virtual hardware platform. Software instructions that would be run on hardware are now interpreted by the emulator software. This allows you to "run" a different kind of computer hardware and its software in a window on your computer.

See article Virtualization software for the details.

Real hardware

Note For the real hardware experiments, we recommend you to use our "official" Dell Latitude D531 laptop or similar notebook models in order to achieve the best possible experience.

Ordinary CD-ROM method

  • Make sure your BIOS is configured to boot from the CD-ROM first.
  • If your PC has UEFI system firmware, then you have to enable legacy BIOS mode.
  • Insert the ReactOS setup CD-ROM into a CD-ROM drive and reboot your computer. On the next boot, the ReactOS setup utility will start.
  • Follow the instructions on the screen to install ReactOS on your computer.
  • After the installation has finished, remove the setup CD-ROM from the CD-ROM drive and press Enter to reboot your computer. You can now start ReactOS by selecting it from the boot menu.

USB Installation

Due to problems with the PnP manager, it is NOT currently possible to boot or install ReactOS from a USB stick made directly from *.iso file. You will get BSOD with 0x0000007B code. This worked previously but was broken several years ago by a rewrite of the USB code and major changes in the kernel. For USB boot you have to use RAM Boot method instead.

You can try applying a patch from PR #1569 and building from source, or try these unofficial experimental builds http://vgal.ru.com/reactos-0-4-10-new-usb/ (not recommended, they are very outdated).

USB-RAM boot

For this method, you should prepare a flash drive first. It should have a FAT32 filesystem and the Multiboot specification-capable bootloader should be installed on it. For example, you can use syslinux. Here is how to install it (for syslinux version 6.x):

On Linux

Plug in the flash drive and leave it unmounted. Then run these commands:

sudo mkfs.vfat /dev/sdb1
sudo syslinux --install /dev/sdb1

Note: here, /dev/sdb1 is a partition on a flash drive

On Windows

Use Rufus tool:

  • Select your flash drive
  • Click "Show advanced drive properties"
  • Boot selection: Syslinux 6.x
  • Partition scheme: MBR, File system: FAT32
  • Format the drive using selected options above

Next common steps for both platforms

At this point, you should have a bootloader installed onto the drive. Now it's time to copy some files onto it.

(Download all the required files, except iso images, in a zip-archive. It uses freeldr.sys from the fb4591c commit)

  • Now you need to copy mboot.c32 and libcom32.c32 syslinux libraries to the root
  • Then copy a freeldr.sys bootloader from ReactOS 0.4.13 or higher
  • Now you need to write some configuration files. First, syslinux.cfg:
DEFAULT ReactOS
LABEL ReactOS
  KERNEL mboot.c32
  APPEND /freeldr.sys
  • Then freeldr.ini:
[FREELOADER]
DefaultOS=BootCD_Debug
TimeOut=5

[Display]
TitleText=ReactOS LiveUSB
StatusBarColor=Cyan
StatusBarTextColor=Black
BackdropTextColor=White
BackdropColor=Blue
BackdropFillStyle=Medium
TitleBoxTextColor=White
TitleBoxColor=Red
MessageBoxTextColor=White
MessageBoxColor=Blue
MenuTextColor=Gray
MenuColor=Black
TextColor=Gray
SelectedTextColor=Black
SelectedColor=Gray
ShowTime=No
MenuBox=No
CenterMenu=No
MinimalUI=Yes
TimeText=Seconds until highlighted choice will be started automatically:

[Operating Systems]
LiveCD="LiveCD"
LiveCD_Debug="LiveCD (Debug)"
LiveCD_Screen="LiveCD (Screen)"
BootCD="BootCD"
BootCD_Debug="BootCD (Debug)"
BootCD_Screen="BootCD (Screen)"

[LiveCD]
BootType=Windows2003
SystemPath=ramdisk(0)\reactos
Options=/MININT /RDPATH=livecd.iso /RDEXPORTASCD

[LiveCD_Debug]
BootType=Windows2003
SystemPath=ramdisk(0)\reactos
Options=/DEBUG /DEBUGPORT=COM1 /BAUDRATE=115200 /SOS /MININT /RDPATH=livecd.iso /RDEXPORTASCD

[LiveCD_Screen]
BootType=Windows2003
SystemPath=ramdisk(0)\reactos
Options=/DEBUG /DEBUGPORT=SCREEN /SOS /MININT /RDPATH=livecd.iso /RDEXPORTASCD

[BootCD]
BootType=ReactOSSetup
SystemPath=ramdisk(0)\
Options=/MININT /RDPATH=bootcd.iso /RDEXPORTASCD

[BootCD_Debug]
BootType=ReactOSSetup
SystemPath=ramdisk(0)\
Options=/DEBUG /DEBUGPORT=COM1 /BAUDRATE=115200 /SOS /MININT /RDPATH=bootcd.iso /RDEXPORTASCD

[BootCD_Screen]
BootType=ReactOSSetup
SystemPath=ramdisk(0)\
Options=/DEBUG /DEBUGPORT=SCREEN /SOS /MININT /RDPATH=bootcd.iso /RDEXPORTASCD

Note: for detailed explanation, see Boot options

  • Now place bootcd.iso and/or livecd.iso in the root of the disk (or whatever path configured in freeldr.ini)
  • Ready to boot

Using virtual machine

  • Create a virtual machine but without the hard disk
  • Create a virtual hard disk for VirtualBox which points to the real one
    • on Linux: VBoxManage internalcommands createrawvmdk -filename "~/VirtualBox VMs/reactos/disk.vmdk" -rawdisk PathToHarddisk
    • important: PathToHarddisk must be the whole disk, not a partition: /dev/sdb
  • Add disk.vmdk to virtual machine via Storage => Add Harddisk
  • Install ReactOS as usual

Network boot or installation via PXE

See article Building PXE-ready ReactOS.

Installing from internal drive

See article User:Minecraftchest1/installing/installing-from-harddrive

Installing drivers

You may be also interested to know how to install a driver for a device in ReactOS. If so, see Install a driver article.

Unattended Installation

You may be also interested to know how to install ReactOS in the automatic (non-interactive) mode. If so, see Create an unattended Installation CD article.

See also

  • VirtualBox – a free virtualization software for Windows, Linux and Mac (HOWTO)
  • QEMU – an open source machine emulator